Make Bold Guesses and Weed Out Failures

The best theories come from your imagination, not extrapolation
Going even further, it’s not just science. When we look at innovation, technology and building—for example, everything that Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla did—this came from trial and error, which is creative guesses and trying things out. If you look at how evolution works through variation and then natural selection, it tries a lot of random mutations and filters out the ones that didn’t work. More

Science Is an Error-Correcting Mechanism

It does not presume to predict the future from the past
Where do good explanations come from? There’s currently an obsession with induction, the idea that you can predict the future from the past. You can say, “I saw one, then two, then three, then four, then five, so therefore next must be six, seven, eight, nine.” There’s a belief that this is how new knowledge is created, that this is how scientific theories are formed and this is how we can make good explanations about the universe. More

Science Expands Our Vision of Reality

The multiverse is another step in this direction
Many scientists and philosophers have talked about the concept of a multiverse. But we’re talking about a very strict, very sober understanding of what a multiverse is.  All of these universes in this multiverse obey the same laws of physics. We’re not talking about universes where there are other laws of physics. More

We Explain the Seen in Terms of the Unseen

No one has ever seen the core of the sun
At this point people might object, “How dare you invoke in science things that can’t be seen or observed? This is completely antagonistic towards the scientific method, surely.” And I would say that almost everything of interest that you know about science is about the unobserved. Let’s consider dinosaurs. Dinosaurs are unobserved. More

The Multiverse

Experiments force us to acknowledge other universes
We have to come to a deeper understanding of what is going on in this double-slit experiment. If we fire either a photon or an electron at that double-slit apparatus and put a detector at either of those slits, then we will detect a particle. We can detect that we’ve fired a particle; we can detect that a particle is going through those slits; and we can detect a particle at the projection screen as well. More

Probability Is Subjective

All physically possible things occur
Does probability actually exist in the physical universe, or is it a function of our ignorance? If I’m rolling a die, I don’t know which way it’s going to land; so therefore I put in a probability. But does that mean there’s an actual probabilistic unknowable thing in the universe? Is the universe rolling a die somewhere, or is it always deterministic? All probability is actually subjective. More

We Can’t Prove Most Theorems with Known Physics

Unprovable theorems vastly outnumber the provable ones
The overwhelming majority of theorems in mathematics are theorems that we cannot possibly prove. This is Gödel’s theorem, and it also comes out of Turing’s proof of what is and is not computable. The things that are not computable vastly outnumber the things that are computable, and what is computable depends entirely upon what computers we can make in this physical universe. More

Every Theory Is Held Inside a Physical Substrate

You’re always bound by the laws of physics
There goes my solution for Zeno’s paradox, which says before you can get all the way somewhere, you have to get halfway there. And before you can get halfway there, you have to get a quarter of the way there, and therefore, you’ll never get there. One way to get past that is to say even a series of infinite things can have a finite sum. More